Serine is synthesized from glycine and helps produce cysteine in the body from homocysteine.
It is one of three amino acids that is usually phosphorylated during cell signaling in eukaryotes (Wikipedia). Phosphorylated serine residues are referred to as phosphoserine. Serine proteases are a common type of protease. Serine has sugar-producing qualities and is very reactive in the body. It is highly concentrated in all cell membranes, helping manufacture immunoglobulins and antibodies.
Serine can be made in the body from either glycine or threonine, but its production is dependent on sufficient levels of vitamin B3, vitamin B6 and folic acid.
Serine is crucial in metabolism because it participates in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, cysteine, tryptophan (in bacteria), in the formation of cell membranes and in creatine synthesis and absorption.
Serine is also a constituent of phospholipids that help seal in moisture. It is included as a natural moisturizing agent in numerous skin care products.
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